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22 November 2009 @ 09:37 pm
Lesson 5: Yodan (Godan) Verbs  
Lesson 5: Yodan (Godan) Verbs
*If you've noticed, I've put the word Godan everytime I posted the word Yodan. Well, if you haven't guessed, it's because you can call them either name. And again, as said in the last lesson, Native speakers wouldn't know what Yodan verbs are. It's a term used to teach the students studying Japanese.
Yodan verbs are just a tad bit more complicated than Ichidan Verbs. Yodan verbs have more different endings which means there's more than one suffix to learn to change to past tense form. Don't worry though, it's not as hard as it may sound.
-U -TSU -RU -tta
-MU -NU -BU -nda
-KU -GU -ita -da
-SU -shita

That's the only thing you need to remember, besides the verb of course, to learn how to change the endings.
The Yodan verbs that end in -U, -TSU, and -RU will change to -tta.
The verbs ending in -MU, -NU, and -BU will change to -nda.
The verbs ending in -KU will change to -ita,
-GU will change to -ida.
And last but not least, -SU will change to -shita.
You should turn the trick into your own little tune to remember it easily.
Now time for a few examples.
One example for each.
Kau (To Buy/To Keep) - Katta (Bought/Kept)
See how the -U changed to -tta?
Matsu (To Wait) - Matta (Waited)
Toru (To Take) - Totta (Took)
Yasumu (To Rest) - Yasunda (Rested)
The next part of the tune, -MU changes to -nda.
Shinu (To Die) - Shinda (Died)
*This is the only -NU verb
Asobu (To Play) - Asonda (Played)
Itadaku (To Receive) - Itadaita (Received)
-KU changes to -ita
Oyogu (To Swim) - Oyoida (Swam)
-GU changes to -ida
Kasu (To Lend) - Kashita (Lended)
-SU changes to -shita
*In the '-U -TSU -RU -tta' tune, when it comes to the -KU and -GU it says -da for the -GU. Notice they took off the I that's supposed to be infront of the -da. Note, that's just to help with the rhythm. If you'd like the rythm to have an I infront of the -da, go right on ahead and add it.
Here's a list of Yodan verbs for you to study
(But be prepared, there are a lot)
*remember, take your time when learning a new language. It takes time but you'll get it down when you try. Maybe try studying one or a few verbs a day. It'll come to you.
Au - To Meet
Tatsu - To Stand
Hairu - To Enter
Chiru - To Fall/To Scatter
Kiru - To Cut
Hashiru - To Run
Iru - To Need/To Exist
Kaeru - To Return
Kageru - To Limit
Keru - To Kick
Mairu - To Come/To Go
Nigiru - To Grasp
Shiru - To Know
Matsu - To Wait
Toru - To Take
Kau - To Buy/To Keep
Yomu - To Read
Shinu - To Die
Yobu - To Call Out/To Invite
Tobu - To Fly/To Jump
Isogu - To Hurry
Tataku - To Strike/To Clap
Hanasu - To Speak
Aruku - To Walk
Kasu - To Lend
Asobu - To Play
Aru - To Be/To Exist/To Have
Chigau - To Be Different/To Be Mistaken
Furu - To Fall (Rain, Snow)
Gozaru - To Be/To Exist/To Have
Irassharu - To Go/To Come/To Be
Itadaku - To Receive
Iu - To Say/To Relate
Kakaru - To Take (Time)
Kaku - To Write
Kiku - To Hear/To Ask
Kudasaru - To Give to Speaker
Kakeru - To Call (Telephone)
Magaru - To Turn
Marau - To Receive
Motsu - To Have/To Hold
Motte iku - To Take (A Place)
Motte kuru - To Bring
Naru - To Become/To Get
Noboru - To Drink
Nuru - To Paint
Omou - To Think
Owaru - To End/To Finish
Oyogu - To Swim
Sagasu - To Look For
Saku - To Bloom
Sumu - To Live
Suwaru - To Sit Down
Tomaru - To Stay Overnight
Tsukau - To Use
Ugoku - To Move/To Change
Umu - To Produce/To Give Birth
Uru - To Sell
Wakaru - To Understand
Yaru - To Give
Yasumu - To Rest
Ageru - To Give/To Raise
Miru - To Look/To Watch
Ochiru - To Fall
Oboeru - To Remember
Kimeru - To Decide/To Fix/To Choose
Kariru - To Borrow
Dekakeru - To Go Out
Ikiru - To Live/To Become Alive
Ireru - To Be/To Exist
Kangaeru - To Think About/To Consider
Kudaberu - To Compare
Kureru - To Give to Speaker
Mukeru - To Turn
Oriru - To Get Off
Sashiageru - To Give
Tsukareru - To Become Tired
Tsukuru - To Make
Tsutomeru - To Be Employed
*The verb Kudasaru is almost like the word Please.
You'll be the one to say it, it's asking to give something to you, Not the other person (As in taking).
Kudasai means please, know it comes from the verb Kudasaru.
There are only four irregular verbs in the Japanese language. What a relief, right?
And here they are.
Kuru (To Come) - Kita (Came)
Suru (To Do) - Shita (Did)
Da (To Be/Is, Am, Are, ect..) - Datta (Was, Had, ect..)
Iku (To Go) - Itta (Went)
*Yomu and Yobu conjugate with the same suffix. In the end you get Yonda for both verbs. Be aware of the contex to know exactly what verb the other person happens to be using.
And be sure to remember
-U -TSU -RU -tta
-MU -NU -BU -nda
-KU -GU -ita -da
-SU -shita
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